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After the first instance, for more than 3 authors, the source should be cited as the first author and then ‘et al’ and the date (De Cleene & Fogo, 2012; Adair & Vohra, 2003), such as Smith et al (date).
Further to this, when citing sources, the name of the author or authors should be provided followed by the date of publication.
In the first instance, all authors’ names should be cited unless there are more than 6 authors wherein the first 6 are cited followed by ‘et al’ and then the date.
APA style referencing refers to American Psychological Association’s referencing style 6th edition, and is one of the most popular and frequently used forms of referencing style within psychological research literature (Dryjanska, 2017; Gaffney, 2016; De Cleene & Fogo, 2012).
The following essay will provide a discussion of the importance of APA style referencing within psychological literature but also in terms of consistency within academic essays.
A claim is the assertion that authors would like to prove to their audience. The grounds of an argument are the evidence and facts that help support the claim.
Finally, the warrant, which is either implied or stated explicitly, is the assumption that links the grounds to the claim.Words like “presumably,” “some,” and “many” help your audience understand that you know there are instances where your claim may not be correct.The rebuttal is an acknowledgement of another valid view of the situation.Including a qualifier or a rebuttal in an argument helps build your ethos, or credibility.When you acknowledge that your view isn’t always true or when you provide multiple views of a situation, you build an image of a careful, unbiased thinker, rather than of someone blindly pushing for a single interpretation of the situation.Furthermore, such a referencing style means that referencing and citations are standardised and there is continuity within papers that use APA referencing (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006; Simmons, 2004; Polkinghorne, 1997).On this note, proper referencing is important in order to demonstrate to or inform the reader where the information or evidence has come from and prevent accusations of plagiarism.One of the most important reasons for using APA style referencing is that it ensures that academic literature and research reporting is standardised and supports a commitment to the scientific ideal (Safer & Tang, 2009; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995).In this sense, using APA style referencing is important in order to conform to how research papers and articles are referenced in the hard sciences like Chemistry, and is particularly important with regards to presenting complex information and findings in a succinct and logical manner (Simmons, 2004; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995).In this case, to assert the claim that additional research needs to be made on how online communication effects relationships, the author shows how the original article needs to account for technological, demographic, and modality limitations in the study.Since we know that when a study lacks a perspective, it would be beneficial to do more research (i.e., we have a warrant), it would be safe to assume that more research should be conducted (i.e. The other three elements—backing, qualifier, and rebuttal—are not fundamental to a Toulmin argument, but may be added as necessary.