Biodegradation Research Papers

Biodegradation Research Papers-20
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The main difference between these processes is that anaerobic reactions produce methane, while aerobic reactions do not (however, both reactions produce carbon dioxide, water, some type of residue, and a new biomass).

Due to anaerobic digestion's ability to reduce the volume and mass of waste materials and produce a natural gas, anaerobic digestion technology is widely used for waste management systems and as a source of local, renewable energy.

Factors include light, water, oxygen and temperature.

The degradation rate of many organic compounds is limited by their bioavailability, which is the rate at which a substance is absorbed into a system or made available at the site of physiological activity, as compounds must be released into solution before organisms can degrade them.

Starch-based plastics will degrade within two to four months in a home compost bin, while polylactic acid is largely undecomposed, requiring higher temperatures.

Polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone-starch composites decompose slower, but the starch content accelerates decomposition by leaving behind a porous, high surface area polycaprolactone. In 2016, a bacterium named Ideonella sakaiensis was found to biodegrade PET.Biodeterioration is sometimes described as a surface-level degradation that modifies the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of the material.This stage occurs when the material is exposed to abiotic factors in the outdoor environment and allows for further degradation by weakening the material's structure.Some packaging materials on the other hand are being developed that would degrade readily upon exposure to the environment.Examples of synthetic polymers that biodegrade quickly include polycaprolactone, other polyesters and aromatic-aliphatic esters, due to their ester bonds being susceptible to attack by water.The breakdown of materials by microorganisms when oxygen is present, it's aerobic digestion.And the breakdown of materials when oxygen is not present, is anaerobic digestion.First one places a solid waste sample in a container with microorganisms and soil, and then aerates the mixture.Over the course of several days, microorganisms digest the sample bit by bit and produce carbon dioxide – the resulting amount of CO It's important to note factors that affect biodegradation rates during product testing to ensure that the results produced are accurate and reliable.Several materials will test as being biodegradable under optimal conditions in a lab for approval but these results may not reflect real world outcomes where factors are more variable.For example, a material may have tested as biodegrading at a high rate in the lab may not degrade at a high rate in a landfill because landfills often lack light, water, and microbial activity that are necessary for degradation to occur.

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