To locate these books please refer to the other pages in this guide.Quick guides to assist with essay writing covers: Academic Reading, Critical Thinking, Essay Writing, Grammar, Making Better Notes, Oral Presentations, Revising for Exams, Time Management, etc.
Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed . Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently.
If your professor defers and tells you to "choose whatever you want, just be consistent," then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e.g., use Chicago style if its a history class; use APA if its an education course; use MLA if it is literature or a general writing course].eferencing other people's research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality. If you write your paper without adequate references to previous studies, you are signaling to the reader that you are not familiar with the literature about the topic, thereby, undermining the validity of your study and your credibility as a researcher.
What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher?
Do not ignore another author's work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature.
Reference the revised chart, such as, [adapted from Smith, 1996], then cite the complete source in your list of references.
You can also use other terms in order to specify the exact relationship between the original source and the version you have presented, such as, "based on Smith ...," or "summarized from Smith ...." Citing the original source helps the reader locate where the information was first presented and under what context it was used as well as to evaluate how effectively you applied it to your own research.4.You can acknowledge the other research by writing in the text of your paper something like this: [see also Smith, 2002], then citing the complete source in your list of references.Use the discovery of prior research as an opportunity to demonstrate the significance of the problem being investigated and, if applicable, as a means of delineating your analysis from those of others [e.g., the prior study is ten years old and doesn't take into account new variables].Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation.The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism. "Academic Integrity: A Quantitative Study of Confidence and Understanding in Students at the Start of Their Higher Education." Referencing your sources means systematically showing what information or ideas you are quoting or paraphrasing from another author’s work, and identifying where that information come from.What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher?In the social sciences, the rationale in duplicating prior research is generally governed by the passage of time, changing circumstances or conditions, or the introduction of new variables .Obviously, any resource used in writing your paper should be cited, regardless of when the study was written.However, in building a case for understanding prior research about your topic, it is generally true that you should focus on citing more recently published studies because they presumably have built upon the research of older publications.What should I do if several authors have published very similar information or ideas?You can indicate that the idea or information can be found in the work of others by stating something similar to the following example: "Though in fact many scholars have applied this theory to understanding economic relations among nations [for example, see Smith, 1989; Jones, 1991; Johnson, 1994; Anderson, 2003], little attention has been given to applying the theory to examining the actions of non-governmental organizations in a globalized economy." If you only reference one author or only the most recent study, then your readers may assume that only one author has published on this topic, or more likely, conclude that you have not conducted a thorough literature review.