The types of cybercrime may be loosely grouped into three categories of cybercrimes.
First, the Internet allows for the creation and maintenance of cybercrime markets.
Wall (2005) notes four characteristics of the Internet that have enabled individuals to easily commit criminal activity: It allows anonymous communication, it is transnational, it has created a shift in thinking from the ownership of physical property to the ownership of ideas, and it is relatively easy.
In addition, Wall contends that the Internet facilitates piracy because it allows the offense to take place detached from the copyright holder, which provides the offender with the perception that the act is victimless.
Digital piracy is defined as the illegal act of copying digital goods, software, digital documents, digital audio (including music and voice), and digital video for any reason without explicit permission from and compensation to the copyright holder (Gopal et al., 2004; Higgins, Fell, &Wilson, 2006).
The Internet has facilitated an increase in digital piracy in recent years.Second, the Internet provides a venue for fraudulent behavior (i.e., cyberfraud).Third, the Internet has become a place for the development of cybercriminal communities.The purpose of this research paper is to outline and exemplify these different forms of communities.The research paper then shifts into a discussion of policy steps to reduce some forms of cybercrime.Mass copyright violations of movies and music were made a felony offense in 1982 by the Piracy and Counterfeiting Amendments Act, which was amended to include the distribution of copyrighted materials over the Internet via the No Electronic Theft Act (Koen & Im, 1997).That is, when an individual proceeds to burn an extra copy of a music CD, download music from the Internet without paying, or use a peer-to-peer network to download music information, he or she is pirating music.In 2005, the Motion Picture Association of American (MPAA) reported that over 90% of the movies that are initially pirated are due to the use of camcording in movie theaters.The Internet has allowed movie pirates to be able to illegally download movies (MPAA, 2004).Several researchers have acknowledged subforms of digital piracy (i.e., audio and video piracy) as being increasingly pervasive (Gopal et al., 2004; Hinduja, 2003). (2006) defined audio and video piracy as the “illegal act of uploading or downloading digital sound or video without explicit permission from and compensation to the copyright holder” (p. Technological advancements are partly responsible for the increased ease and accessibility of digital piracy.The International Federation of Phonographic Industries (IFPI) (2006) estimates that one in three music discs purchased around the world is an illegal copy.