Psychoactive drugs work in the brain primarily by affecting neurotransmitter activity at the synapses.Neurons produce neurotransmitters that are stored in vesicles within the terminal buttons.Tags: Essay Concerning Human NatureEssay Writing For Uk UniversitiesEssay For School ApplicationCritical Essay On HolesConsulting Case Studies FrameworkSchool Argumentative Essay TopicsMy Favourite Personality Essays
For example, taking more or fewer pills per dose or day, not using the drug the full time course as prescribed (e.g., antibiotics), using the drug past the expiration date, using the drug with other drugs (e.g., alcohol with barbiturates), or sharing prescriptions with others without a doctor’s permission are all forms of drug misuse.
Misuse generally refers to the deviation from instructions on the label of over-the-counter drugs or the doctor’s instructions for prescription drugs.
Subsequent to metabolism and recirculation in the blood, the kidneys excrete the more water-soluble metabolites from the body in urine, although there is excretion of small amounts of the drugs and their metabolites in exhaled breath, sweat, saliva, feces, and breast milk.
Not surprisingly, urine drug tests are frequently used to determine the presence of metabolites some time after the metabolism of the original drug, rather than the presence of the original drug at time of administration.
Once released from the postsynaptic receptors, the neurotransmitter molecules undergo reuptake into the presynaptic terminal button or are destroyed by enzymes in the synaptic cleft.
The effect of psychoactive drugs on synaptic activity can occur anywhere in the process of neurotransmitter production, storage, release, receptor binding, and reuptake or degradation. Bibliography A drug is a chemical substance produced exogenously (outside of the body) that, when taken into the body, changes normal body functions.Inhalation results in fast absorption into the bloodstream because gases and drugs in smoke (e.g., nicotine) are readily absorbed into the intricate network of capillaries that line the large surface area of the elaborately pocketed lungs.When an action potential reaches the terminal buttons, vesicles release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.Neurotransmitter molecules then briefly bind to postsynaptic receptors causing ion channels to open, letting ions enter or exit, resulting in either excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.The structure and arrangement of neurons allows for the transmission, integration, storage, and interpretation of information received via sensory receptors, as well as the control of bodily organs and muscles.In other words, these specialized cells (neurons) are responsible for everything we think, feel, and do. Drug abuse, which also can occur with licit and illicit drugs, refers here to use of a psychoactive substance to the extent that it produces some sort of physical, cognitive, behavioral, or social impairment. Although most of these acts may not seem very serious, they all can lead to very dangerous, even deadly, consequences (e.g., alcohol with other drugs, especially other CNS depressants).Although swallowing a pill is a simple, common method of drug administration, absorption is a tenuous process.Drugs taken orally must survive the harsh environment of the digestive system (e.g., stomach acids and digestive enzymes).