Moreover, the word is hardly ever used in the scientific texts of the members of his school.
His faithful disciple and nephew Marcel Mauss in his two well-known texts of 19, “Social Cohesion in Polysegmentary Societies” (Mauss 1969a) and “Fragment of a Plan of General Descriptive Sociology” (Mauss 1969b), prefers to speak of “social cohesion” and not of “solidarity,” only briefly mentioning the two Durkheimian types of the latter in the second of these texts.
Psychopaths and sociopaths are often able to manage their condition and pass as “normal” citizens, although their capacity for manipulation and cruelty can have devastating consequences for people around them.
The term psychopathy is often used to emphasize that the source of the disorder is internal, based on psychological, biological, or genetic factors, whereas sociopathy is used to emphasize predominant social factors in the disorder: The social or familial sources of its development and the inability to be social or abide by societal rules (Hare, 1999).
In a much more sophisticated way, this was also the premise of James Fallon (b.
1947), a neuroscientist at the University of California.
Durkheim viewed social facts being outside of the individual but yet powerful in shaping the individual. Material social facts visible such as buildings, while nonmaterial social facts difficult to see but as a society we know they exist.
The nonmaterial social facts are customs, cultures and norms for any given society (Ritzer, p 188).
In this sense, the sociopath is a very modern sort of deviant.
Contemporary approaches to psychopathy and sociopathy have focused on biological and genetic causes.