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This is defined and detailed in Berlo’s (1960) theory, which puts great emphasis on the interaction between the source and receiver in the presence of a message and facilitated by the chosen channel.However, this fails to depict the two crucial elements which are present in Shannon - Weaver’s model, namely noise and feedback.
Although omnipresent through its nature, communication is difficult to define, as it is such a natural phenomenon for all living creatures, humans in particular.
It can be described as the verbal or non-verbal interaction between two or more individuals, with the purpose of exchanging information.
A sender and a receiver are interlinked, as both are simultaneously engaging in sending and receiving messages, as is the case with a two-way conversation.
In more complex communication contexts a receiver may decode a number of messages at the same time and also formulate their own message, code it and choose a channel to communicate it.
Figure 1 Shannon & Weaver's (1949) Communication Model As pictured in the model above, whilst the linear process (from sender to receiver) may not be seamless from the beginning, due to noise in any potential form, feedback can help reconcile any misunderstandings created by any unwanted interferences in the form of noise.
Understanding the variety and depth of the potential noise which can interfere in the communication process is crucial to designing and delivering a persuasive message.Politicians and other individuals seeking to influence the behaviour, thoughts or actions of other individuals have to deliver a persuasive message to their audience, which requires an in-depth understanding of the overall communication process.Inside an organisation, it is important to ensure that communication between all members is seamless, particularly the communication between managers and their subordinates.For example, social media accounts on Twitter can be used by some individuals or brands as a manner of broadcasting their message, without taking into account what impact this may have on other individuals who are seeing it (Rybalko & Seltzer, 2010).However, this approach does not maximise the potential of this free broadcasting platforms and individuals and companies alike should focus on the ability to interact with others through replies and mentions.Brands should aim to engage in a two-way meaningful communication process with their targeted audience, in order to become relevant to their potential customer and also to benefit from the feedback of these users.The chart below outlines the interaction between the sender, receiver and message in the instance of one-way and two-way communication, which can aid all individuals and organisations who intend to communicate in choosing the more appropriate of the two.Communication is also used by individuals and organisations to create and share meaning.An organisation for instance cannot exist without the effective use of communication amongst its members and the majority of businesses also depends on effective communication with their clients.Figure 3 One-way communication Figure 4 Two-way communication The two distinct approaches to communication processes have their relevance in distinct situations.The linear one-way communication was habitually utilised at the onset of modern mass-communication through print, radio or TV, when feedback was not easily obtainable from the receiver and organisations were relying on the persuasiveness of the message.