“One study has shown that eyewitness errors are the most common cause of false convictions (ref.).
Almost all innocent individuals exonerated by DNA evidence had been convicted primarily as a result of erroneous eyewitness evidence (ref.) Consequently, a great deal of research has focussed on the unreliability of eyewitness testimony (refs.).” , such a narrow focus may not fully explain how people remember (ref.). Reviews the chronological development of research in this area (an approach that is useful at times, but not always the best).
To learn more about literature reviews, take a look at our workshop on Writing Literature Reviews of Published Research.
An important strategy for learning how to compose literature reviews in your field or within a specific genre is to locate and analyze representative examples.
the results obtained from studies using stories and word lists as stimuli can be generalised to forensic contexts.” …
“That is, the differences found between individuals and groups could simply be due to the participants giving their reports for a second time …” …In the conclusion, you should: Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction.Evaluate the current “state of the art” for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study.Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space (length) denotes significance.Provide the reader with strong “umbrella” sentences at beginnings of paragraphs, “signposts” throughout, and brief “so what” summary sentences at intermediate points in the review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses.It is often possible to get a good overview of an assignment by looking briefly at the conclusion. Again (as with introductions) it will not always be necessary or desirable to include all the elements they mention.However, writing a conclusion can be quite difficult. However, you will probably want to use some of these in some combination, in order to conclude your work.“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.This is because it can often be hard to find something interesting or useful to say in the conclusion. What are the differences between writing conclusions to essays and to dissertations/theses? These recommendations probably apply more to discussion essays than they do to other kinds of assessed writing at university.Conclusions should be attractive and interesting but often they are rather dull and "formula written". For example, if you are writing a business plan or discussing a law scenario, or answering an examination question, you may not need the above elements, unless the question specifically asks you for them or unless it is known that it is expected of you in the discipline you are working in.