Literature Review On Motivation Of Employees

Literature Review On Motivation Of Employees-9
Motivation is defined as “a human psychological characteristic that add to a person’s degree of commitment.It is the management process of in¬‚uencing employees’ behavior”.This was also supported by Frey and Jegen (2001) who reviewed the literature on intrinsic motivations and found that the evidence does suggest that incentives sometimes do ”crowd-out” intrinsic motivations.

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Quite differently from the other definitions, Locke and Latham (2004) identified that motivation influence people’s acquisition of skills and the extent to which they use their ability.The author argued that the introduction of an extrinsic reward put the individual in a dependent position relative to the source of the reward.The locus of causality for his behavior changes from self to the external reward and thus the individual’s perception of self-control, free choice, and commitment deteriorate and hence do his motivation.(Badu, 2005) Conversely, Bartol and Martin (1998) relate motivation to the force that stimulates behavior, provide direction to behavior, and underlies the tendency to prevail.In other words individuals must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must have a clear focus on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to commit their energy for a long period of time to realize their aim in order to achieve goals.In addition Frey (1997) note that high intrinsic work motivation evolving from work which is interesting involves the trust and loyalty of personal relationships and is participatory.However, under certain circumstances, intrinsic motivation can be diminished, or ”crowded-out” by external interventions like monitoring or pay-for-performance incentive schemes.Motivation can affect both the acquisition of people’s skills and abilities; and also the extent to which they utilize their skills and abilities” (Locke and Latham, 2004).In a nut shell, different authors have put forward the concept of motivation differently.Based on these reasoning, this paper shall include analytical and empirical studies to reveal the discrepancies and feasibility aspect of the domain, as Rai (2004) put forward; motivation is crucial for good performance and therefore it is increasingly important to study what motivates employees for better performance.This section offers a review of literature, which explores the concepts, types and theoretical aspects including content and process theories, theories of motivation developed in other psychological areas as well as empirical evidences in organizational contexts.

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