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A row of elements across the table is called a period. Period 1 has only 2 elements in it: hydrogen and helium. A column of elements down the table is called a group.There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table. Elements in a group have electrons arranged in similar ways, according to the number of valency electrons, which gives them similar chemical properties (they behave in similar ways).The extra particles make the atom heavier and the extra shell of electrons makes the atom take up more space.
For example, elements to the bottom and far left of the table are the most metallic, and elements on the top right are the least metallic. The Periodic Table was invented and arranged by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834-1907).
In his honor, element 101 was named after him, mendelevium.
The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of protons in that particular nucleus of an atom.
In the periodic table the elements are arranged into periods and groups. Elements in a period have consecutive atomic numbers.
By arranging the elements in this way, those with similar properties (characteristics) are grouped together.
As with any grid, the periodic table has rows running left to right, and columns running up and down.
For example, group 18 is known as the noble gases because they are all gases and they do not combine with other atoms.
There are two systems of group numbers; one using Arabic numerals (1,2,3) and the other using Roman numerals (I, II, III).
The periodic table has been used by chemists to observe patterns and relationships between elements.
There are 3 main groups in in the Periodic Table; metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. There are also many other patterns and relationships.