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Sociologist Steven Nock of the University of Virginia, who is agnostic on the issue of same-sex civil marriage, offered this review of the literature on gay parenting as an expert witness for a Canadian court considering legalization of same-sex civil marriage: Through this analysis I draw my conclusions that 1) all of the articles I reviewed contained at least one fatal flaw of design or execution; and 2) not a single one of those studies was conducted according to general accepted standards of scientific research.
Same-sex marriage would only further undercut the procreative norm long associated with marriage insofar as it establishes that there is no necessary link between procreation and marriage.
This was spelled out in the Goodridge decision in Massachusetts, where the majority opinion dismissed the procreative meaning of marriage.
For instance, a recent study of father absence on girls found that girls who grew up apart from their biological father were much more likely to experience early puberty and a teen pregnancy than girls who spent their entire childhood in an intact family.
This study, along with David Popenoe's work, suggests that a father's pheromones influence the biological development of his daughter, that a strong marriage provides a model for girls of what to look for in a man, and gives them the confidence to resist the sexual entreaties of their boyfriends. Although homosexual men are less likely to have children than lesbians, homosexual men are and will be raising children.
Eleanor Mac Coby, The Two Sexes: Growing Up Apart, Coming Together (Boston: Harvard, 1998).
Steven Rhoads, Taking Sex Differences Seriously (Encounter Books, 2004). Evidence on parenting by same-sex couples is inadequate.The fact that both parents have a biological connection to the child would increase the likelihood that the parents would identify with the child and be willing to sacrifice for that child, and it would reduce the likelihood that either parent would abuse the child. " Elizabeth Marquardt reports that children of divorce often report similar feelings about their non-custodial parent, usually the father. If same-sex civil marriage becomes common, most same-sex couples with children would be lesbian couples.Sara Mc Lanahan and Gary Sandefur, Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1994) 38. Kyle Pruett, Fatherneed (Broadway Books, 2001) 204. This would mean that we would have yet more children being raised apart from fathers.Judith Stacey-- a sociologist and an advocate for same-sex civil marriage--reviewed the literature on child outcomes and found the following: "lesbian parenting may free daughters and sons from a broad but uneven range of traditional gender prescriptions." Her conclusion here is based on studies that show that sons of lesbians are less masculine and that daughters of lesbians are more masculine.She also found that a "significantly greater proportion of young adult children raised by lesbian mothers than those raised by heterosexual mothers ...A number of leading professional associations have asserted that there are "no differences" between children raised by homosexuals and those raised by heterosexuals.But the research in this area is quite preliminary; most of the studies are done by advocates and most suffer from serious methodological problems.The following are ten science-based arguments against same-sex "marriage": 1. Homosexual couples using in vitro fertilization (IVF) or surrogate mothers deliberately create a class of children who will live apart from their mother or father. Elizabeth Marquardt, The Moral and Spiritual Lives of Children of Divorce. Among other things, we know that fathers excel in reducing antisocial behavior and delinquency in boys and sexual activity in girls.Yale Child Study Center psychiatrist Kyle Pruett reports that children of IVF often ask their single or lesbian mothers about their fathers, asking their mothers questions like the following:"Mommy, what did you do with my daddy? What is fascinating is that fathers exercise a unique social and biological influence on their children.Only about 50 percent of gay men in civil unions valued sexual fidelity.Esther Rothblum and Sondra Solomon, Civil Unions in the State of Vermont: A Report on the First Year.