Research Papers N Automobile Industry

Interestingly, the seatbelt had been introduced for steam-powered horseless carriages in the 1800s, but its purpose was to keep passengers on their seat, not to keep them safe in the event of a collision [1].The steering mechanism in very early automobiles was a tiller, a lever arm that connected to the pivot point of the front wheels, a design derived from small boats.

Tillers were easy to use for very slow speeds and lightweight vehicles (such as those with three wheels).

However, steering a jolting tiller with sheer muscle power was difficult for heavy four-wheel vehicles moving at high speed.

This last period is continuing, so it is a bit more difficult to be retrospective in grouping decades.

Therefore, Section 4 is divided by research topics, not by decades.

The automotive industries include car or vehicle manufacturers, component and automotive part manufacturers, re­sellers, and after­market services and parts.

The current global automotive markets and industries are characterized by slowly diversifying demand region, with growing demand from highly­populated developing countries.The brake system for very early self-powered vehicles consisted of a wooden block pressed against one of the wheels using a hand-operated lever, a technology adapted from horse carriages.A foot pedal to operate the band brake first appeared in Benz Velo in 1894 (Figure 2).Electric cars are more expensive than traditional automotive vehicles; this primarily due to the added cost of a high­capacity battery.Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) combine the traditional ICE with an electric propulsion system, and this electric powertrain gives HEVs improved fuel economy over conventional vehicles.A bar handle with grips at both ends to be held with both hands was introduced that could be held more firmly than the tiller.A round steering wheel, able to be turned by muscle power and easier to hold in the hands, was first introduced around 1895 (Figure 1).This paper also examines how those developments were influenced by (1) advances in basic technology, (2) requirements from government agencies and international standards, and (3) even the news media.All of this is done roughly chronologically, with developments grouped into three time periods—before World War II, after World War II until 1989, and since 1990.For each topic, research activities are described chronologically to help readers to understand how the research has progressed for these 20 years to reach the current status.Over the course of the first half-century after the invention of the automobile by Karl Benz in 1886, various changes were made to self-powered vehicles so they were better suited to human abilities, changes based on experience with animal-drawn vehicles.

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