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FIGURE 5: VIEW THROUGH OPEN MOUTH Soft Palate Uvula Tonsil Tongue THE LARYNX Don't be lax about the larynx • • • • • Airway obstruction, often due to foreign bodies at this level Any mucosal swelling of larynx can cause airway obstruction The larynx is very vulnerable to direct trauma Trauma to the larynx is often associated with cervical spine injury Emergency airway can be obtained by inserting cannulae through the cricothyroid membrane ___________________________________________________________________________ OBHG Education Subcommittee 8 Disruption of normal laryngeal function or structure may lead to airway compromise. It lies anterior to the cervical vertebrae between C3 and C6, hence the common association of laryngeal and cervical fractures.
___________________________________________________________________________ OBHG Education Subcommittee 3 FIGURE 1: SITES OF ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR NOSEBLEEDS Nasal Septum Epistaxis Sites On the lateral wall of each nasal cavity are three scroll-like elevations of bone covered with mucous membrane.
Attempting to pass any tube through the nose in such a patient may result in the tube passing through the fracture into the cranium with disastrous consequences.
SINUSES Sinus Highlights • • • • sinus infections can lead to headache ethmoid sinuses occasionally rupture with pressure changes sinusitis may lead to brain abscess air-fluid level in the sphenoid sinus may indicate a basal skull fracture The nasal sinuses are the ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal.
Describe the influence of the central nervous system on respiration. Briefly describe the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of: • • • • 9.
__________________________________________________________________________ OBHG Education Subcommittee 2 PARAMEDIC RESOURCE MANUAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Adequate patient care demands that each paramedic be able to assess a patient's airway and ventilation and manage any problems that exist.