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The Summa's three parts have a few other major subdivisions. 3) as an example: "Whether Christ should have led a life of poverty in this world?The Summa has a standard format for each article, which can be explained by taking another article (Pt. ", The Summa makes many references to certain thinkers held in great respect in Aquinas's time.
Hence follows predestination: from eternity some are destined to eternal life, while as concerns others "he permits some to fall short of that end".
Reprobation, however, is more than mere foreknowledge; it is the "will of permitting anyone to fall into sin and incur the penalty of condemnation for sin". Since God is the first cause of everything, he is the cause of even the free acts of men through predestination.
Throughout the Summa, Aquinas cites Christian, Muslim, Hebrew, and Pagan sources including but not limited to Christian Sacred Scripture, Aristotle, Augustine of Hippo, Avicenna, Averroes, Al-Ghazali, Boethius, John of Damascus, Paul the Apostle, Dionysius the Areopagite, Maimonides, Anselm, Plato, Cicero, and Eriugena.
The Summa is a more structured and expanded version of Aquinas's earlier Summa contra Gentiles.
Questions, in turn, are subdivided into 3,125 Articles.
"Questions" are specific topics of discussion, while their articles are even more specific questions, facets of the parent question.As the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians 3: 1–2, as to infants in Christ, I gave you milk to drink, not meat, our proposed intention in this work is to convey those things that pertain to the Christian religion, in a way that is fitting to the instruction of beginners." It was while teaching at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale, the forerunner of the Santa Maria sopra Minerva studium generale and College of Saint Thomas, which in the 20th century would become the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, that Aquinas began to compose the Summa.He completed the Prima Pars (first part) in its entirety and circulated it in Italy before departing to take up his second regency as professor at the University of Paris (1269–1272).The Summa is Aquinas' "most perfect work, the fruit of his mature years, in which the thought of his whole life is condensed." Among non-scholars, the Summa is perhaps most famous for its five arguments for the existence of God, which are known as the "five ways" (Latin: quinque viae).The five ways, however, occupy only one of the Summa's 3,125 articles.He worked on it from the time of Clement IV (after 1265) until the end of his life.When he died, he had reached Question 90 of Part III (on the subject of penance).The arguments from authority, or sed contra arguments, are almost entirely based on citations from these authors.Some were called by special names: The structure of the Summa Theologiae is meant to reflect the cyclic nature of the cosmos, in the sense of the emission and return of the Many from and to the One in Platonism, cast in terms of Christian theology: The procession of the material universe from divine essence, the culmination of creation in man, and the motion of man back towards God by way of Christ and the Sacraments.The following is from the New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (a public-domain work): St.Thomas's greatest work was the Summa, and it is the fullest presentation of his views.