Document 1: Defense Intelligence Agency, Scud B Study, August 1974. A crucial element of the Persian Gulf war was the Iraqi launch of its modified Scud missiles. Document 3: DIA Iraq Regional Intelligence Task Force, Iraq Launches Multiple SRBM's Dec 2, December 3, 1990. On December 2, 1990, six weeks before the United States and its allies initiated Operation Desert Storm, Iraq test launched three Scud missiles from sites in eastern Iraq, which impacted in western Iraq.
Iraq originally obtained Scud missiles, along with much of the rest of its military equipment, from their producer--the Soviet Union. interests in the region and the four principles that would guide U. policy during the crisis--including the "immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait" and "a commitment to the security and stability of the Persian Gulf." The directive went on to specify diplomatic, economic, energy, and military measures the U. This DIA report, based at least in part on data from Defense Support Program launch detection satellites, provides first notification of the launch and basic data on the nature of the missiles--including type, launch sites and impact areas--as well as other relevant information.
Destruction of Iraq's mobile Scud forces proved far more difficult than expected, in part due to Iraqi tactics.
At war's end there had been no confirmed kills of mobile Scuds.
It thus excludes the classified imagery, signals intelligence, and measurement and signature intelligence satellite operations conducted by the CIA and National Reconnaissance Office. The U-2 program began operations in 1956 with flights over Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
It does focus on the use of the Defense Support Program (launch detection), Global Positioning System (navigation), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (weather) satellites as well as the operations of U. communications and LANDSAT (multispectral imagery) satellites. The document provides a timeline, a narrative of the sequence of events, an assessment of the contribution of each system discussed, and recommendations for future action. Cross II, 9th RW, The Dragon Lady Meets the Challenge: The U-2 in Desert Storm, n.d. Overflights of the Soviet Union ended with the shootdown of Francis Gary Powers on May 1, 1960.Document 7: Air Force Space Command, Desert Storm "Hot Wash" 12-, July 1991. This 9-page assessment examines space operations during Desert Storm with respect to nine different areas, including weather support, satellite communications (SATCOM), navigation, use of multi-spectral imagery, tactical ballistic missile warning, and satellite repositioning.Each page focuses on one area, and includes observations, discussion, lessons learned, and recommended actions.This post-war DIA assessment focuses on a number of subjects, including pre-war intelligence assumptions, Iraqi Scud deployment and dispersal, the capabilities of Iraq's extended range Scuds, and means of measuring the effectiveness of the counter-Scud effort.It concluded that the "lessons learned during Operation DESERT STORM can provide the framework for developing a more effective, realistic approach to targeting both Third World ballistic missiles and Soviet mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles in the future." Document 9: Office of History, HQ 37th Fighter Wing, Twelfth Air Force, Tactical Air Command, Nighthawks Over Iraq: A Chronology of the F-117A Stealth Fighter in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, January 1992. A key element in allied success in the Persian Gulf War was the U.S.-British led air campaign prior to the commencement of the ground campaign.That air campaign marked the first major use of the F-117A, "Nighthawk," stealth fighter, the existence of which was declassified in 1988 shortly before its first combat in Operation JUST CAUSE in Panama in 1989.Subsequent studies of F-117A operations, such as that of the General Accounting Office, were more skeptical of the F-117A effectiveness.Document 10: United States Space Command, United States Space Command Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, January 1992. This assessment examines the operations and impact of those space operations conducted by the U. Space Command and its components just prior to and during the Persian Gulf war.This briefing book primarily focuses on the intelligence, space operations, and Scud-hunting aspects of the war.It also includes a report describing how Desert Storm affected China's view of future warfare, a document that raises questions as to what lessons other nations have drawn from U. military engagements in the Middle East and the Balkans.